Exploiting Multiple Pathways for Best-in-Class Treatment Strategies
Elusive and complex, pervasive and diverse, cancer remains one of the most challenging diseases of our lifetime. Its adaptive nature requires formidable exploration to understand tumor genesis and how treatments can be devised to suppress and kill cancer cells. We strive to be at the forefront of this research, exploiting cancer’s multiple pathways that can be inhibited or modulated, thus making the disease an excellent candidate for combination therapy.
Devising New Strategies To Treat And Defeat Cancer
We are making consistent headway against difficult-to-treat cancers with small molecule therapies that work alone and in combination with treatment regimens to precisely target different and complementary pathways.
About Genitourinary Cancers
Genitourinary cancers are those that affect the urinary tract, bladder, kidneys, ureter, prostate, testicles, penis or adrenal glands — parts of the body involved in reproduction and excretion — and include renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and urothelial carcinoma.1 The American Cancer Society’s 2017 statistics cite kidney cancer as among the top ten most commonly diagnosed forms of cancer among both men and women in the U.S.2 Clear cell RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults.3 If detected in its early stages, the five-year survival rate for RCC is high; for patients with advanced or late-stage metastatic RCC, however, the five-year survival rate is only 12 percent, with no identified cure for the disease.4 Approximately 30,000 patients in the U.S. and 68,000 globally require treatment, and an estimated 14,000 patients in the U.S. each year are in need of a first-line treatment for advanced kidney cancer.5
Urothelial cancers encompass carcinomas of the bladder, ureter and renal pelvis at a ratio of 50:3:1, respectively.6 Urothelial carcinoma occurs mainly in older people, with 90 percent of patients aged 55 or older.6 Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and accounts for about five percent of all new cases of cancer in the U.S. each year.7 In 2013, an estimated 587,426 people were living with bladder cancer in the U.S.8
About Hepatocellular Carcinoma
HCC is the most common form of liver cancer and the third-leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.9 The disease originates in cells called hepatocytes, which make up the majority of the liver.10 Without treatment, patients with advanced disease usually survive less than 6 months.11 During 2003-2012, deaths in the U.S. from liver cancer increased at the highest rate of all cancer sites.12 In 2017 it is estimated that nearly 41,000 new cases will be diagnosed and 29,000 people will die due to liver cancer in the U.S.13 Across the U.S., EU5 (Italy, France, Germany, Spain, and United Kingdom) and Japan, it is estimated that approximately 117,000 new cases will be diagnosed in 2017.12,14-16 Worldwide, nearly 800,000 new cases are diagnosed annually, and liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, accounting for more than 700,000 deaths each year.17
- The University of Arizona Cancer Center. What are genitourinary cancers? http://uacc.arizona.edu/patients/clinic/gucancer/what-are-gu-cancers. Accessed September 2017.
- American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2017. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2017.
- Jonasch, E., Gao, J., Rathmell, W., Renal cell carcinoma. BMJ. 2014; 349:g4797.
- Ko, J. , Choueiri, T., et al. First-, second- third-line therapy for mRCC: benchmarks for trial design from the IMDC. British Journal of Cancer. 2014; 110:1917-1922.
- Decision Resources Report: Renal Cell Carcinoma. October 2014 (internal data on file).
- Hurwitz, M. et al. Urothelial and Kidney Cancers. Cancer Management. http://www.cancernetwork.com/cancer-management/urothelial-and-kidney-cancers. Accessed September 2017.
- American Cancer Society. Bladder Cancer Key Statistics. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/bladdercancer/detailedguide/bladder-cancer-key-statistics. Accessed September 2017.
- National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Bladder Cancer. http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/urinb.html. Accessed September 2017.
- Hepatocellular Carcinoma – United States, 2001-2006. (7 May 2010). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5917a3.htm. Accessed September 2017.
- American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2012. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2012.
- Okuda K, Ohtsuki T, Obata H, et al. Natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma and prognosis in relation to treatment. Study of 850 patients. Cancer. 1985. 56(4):918-28.
- Ryerson AB, Eheman CR, Altekruse SF, et al. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2012, featuring the increasing incidence of liver cancer. Cancer. 2016. 122(9):1312-37.
- American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2017. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/annual-cancer-facts-and-figures/2017/cancer-facts-and-figures-2017.pdf. Accessed September 2017.
- Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012. Eur J Cancer. 2013. 49(6):1374-403.
- Projected Cancer Statistics, 2016. Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, National Cancer Center (Japan). Available at: http://ganjoho.jp/en/public/statistics/short_pred.html. Accessed September 2017.
- Exelixis internal estimates of growth rates through 2017.
- Estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. International Agency for Research on Cancer, GLOBOCAN 2012. Available at: http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_cancer.aspx. Accessed September 2017.